Combining Diamond Burbark, Triumfetta rhomboidea (Malvaceae) with Garlic Extract in Push-Pull Management of Spoladea recurvalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Amaranthus hybridus in Nigeria


  • Borisade O. A Ekiti State UniversityNigeria, Crop Protection Unit, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
  • Ayotunde-Ojo M.O.
  • Uwaidem Y.I.


Entomological pests severely undermine amaranth production in Nigeria where the Beet webworm moth, Spoladea recurvalis and Psara basalis were responsible for the most significant damage. Surveys were conducted at two different infested areas (Area-A and Area-B) in the Southwest to identify wild hosts that relay the pest populations into new crop cycles.  The spiny amaranth, (Amaranthus spinosus) was found in Area-A while the diamond burbark (Triumfetta rhomboidea) and A. spinosus were in Area-B. For the purpose of pest identification, larvae samples were collected from the plants habouring mixed lepidopteran larvae and reared to adult in the laboratory. S. recurvalis was the predominant pest in the two surveyed areas. The ratio of P. basalis to S. recurvalis populations on the spiny amaranth in Area-A was 20% to 80%. In Area-B, 90% of the larvae samples from A. spinosus developed into adult S. recurvalis while 10% was P. basalis. Thereafter, the diamond burbark was applied as a border crop around amaranth plots and water extract of garlic was sprayed on the amaranth. The garlic spray and the diamond burbark served as the ‘push’ and the ‘pull’ components of a stimulo-diversionary management system respectively. The control consisted of amaranth plots sprayed with garlic extract only (without border crop). The experiment was conducted in amaranth production field infested naturally by S. recurvalis.  Significantly (P<0.05) lower damage (7.2%) occurred where amaranth was bordered with T. rhomboidea and sprayed with garlic extract, while 64.6% damage was recorded where garlic extract spray alone was used (control). The paper reported the potentials of combining T. rhomboidea with garlic extract to mitigate pest attack against leaf amaranth in Southwestern Nigeria. The method presents environment friendly pest management, capable of reducing reliance on the use of chemical pest management approaches.

Author Biography

Borisade O. A, Ekiti State UniversityNigeria, Crop Protection Unit, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

Senior Lecturer, Crop Protection Unit